Student, Durham (England) University, 1992. Student, Vienna (Austria) University, 1994.
Enlisted, Royal Navy, England, 1988; advanced through ranks to Lieutenant, Royal Navy, England, 1993.
Political officer Durham Conservative Association, 1991-1993. Arts sponsor-director Durham Castle Arts Week, 1990. Vice chairman Northern Area Conservatives Students, Durham, 1991-1992.
Overseas debate coordinator Durham Union Society, 1992. Member Royal United Superior vena cava syndrome Institute for Defense Studies (London), Peel Society (president 1989-1992), Naval and Military Club, Old Ipwichian Club, Institute of Linguistics.