From 1913 to 1918 Chi-ho Tang studied at Saint John's School (a middle school) in Jiujiang. From 1918 to 1923 Tang studied at Boone University in Wuchang (current Wuhan), Hubei Province, and graduated with Bachelor of Arts.
From 1923 to 1925 Chi-ho Tang taught at Saint John's School and also was a reporter for a news agency in Shanghai. In 1925 Tang was sent to the United States by the Jiangxi Provincial Government.
Chi-ho Tang studied at the University of Missouri, and obtained Bachelor of Arts and Master of Arts (in 1927) in journalism. He shortly studied public law at the Columbia University Law School, but transferred to Harvard University. Chi-ho Tang obtained master's degree in 1929 and doctorate in 1932 both from Harvard.
From 1927 to 1932 he also worked for Harvard University Library. In 1930 Tang lectured Chinese culture at Boston University.
After returning China Chi-ho Tang was appointed professor of politics at the National Central University (now Nanjing University). From 1940 to 1945 he was the President of Cheeloo University in Shandong Province. In June 1946 Chi-ho Tang became the President of National Yingshi University (a root of what is now Zhejiang University). In June 1948 he was resigned from the university president position due to the student strike.