He was educated by Prince Frederick Henry and in 1684, he was promoted to colonel.
He served as a general in the army of Brandenburg. He joined the Dutch army, initially serving as ensign. On 6 October 1656, he became a Lieutenant in the army of Brandenburg.
He also served as privy councillor and governor of Küstrin.
On 16 March 1657, he became stadtholder of Halberstadt and Captain at Gröningen. In 1659, he participated in a campaign in Pomerania.
He expanded the fortresses of Berlin and Küstrin and on 2 March 1666, he was promoted to General of the Infantry. In 1671, he became head of a newly formed regiment in Küstrin that was named after him ("Dohna zu Fuß").
In 1672, he was appointed Feldzeugmeister.
From 1675 to 1677, he fought another campaign in Pomerania, where he died in 1677.