Christine Ondoa attended Mount Saint Mary's College Namagunga for her high school studies. She holds the degree of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBChB), obtained in 1994, from Medical School (MUMS), the oldest medical school in East Africa. She also holds the degree of Master of Medicine in Pediatrics (MMed), obtained in 2000, also from MUMS. In March 2011, she graduated from the Uganda Management Institute with the postgraduate Diploma in Public Administration & Management (DipPA&M).
In 2012 she graduated from the same institution with the degree of Master of Management Studies (MMS) She has now enrolled in the Institute of National Transformation for her PhD. She did her internship at St. Francis Hospital Nsambya from 1994 until 1995. She stayed on at Nsambya from 1995 until 1997, when she went back to Makerere University Medical School for her postgraduate training in pediatrics. Between 2000 and 2009, she worked in Arua Regional Referral Hospital as a consultant pediatrician.
Between 2009 and 2010, she worked at Jinja Regional Referral Hospital as Senior Pediatrician and later promoted as a senior consultant pediatrician and hospital director. She also served as the chairperson of the governing council for Jinja School of Nursing and Midwifery. From January 2011 until May 2011, she worked as the Executive Director at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, the teaching hospital of Mbarara University of Science and Technology (MUST).
Then from May 211 to May 2013, she was Uganda's Minister of Health.