AB, Harvard University, 1956; Master of Arts, Harvard University, 1959; Doctor of Philosophy, Harvard University, 1960.
Research assistant professor Boston University, 1960-1962. Senior lecturer Melbourne (Australia) University, 1962-1964. Professor microbiology University Hawaii, Honolulu, from 1964.
Vice president Biofoods Inc., Honolulu, from 1981. President Ecoculture Association, Honolulu, from 1980. Board directors Islenet Inc., Honolulu.
Fellow British Interplanetary Society. Member American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Chemical Society, International Society Study Origin Life, Mensa, Sigma Xi. Clubs: Waikiki Yacht, Outrigger Canoe, Honolulu (Honolulu).
Married Jo Grubawicz, September 26, 1956 (divorced October 1980). Children: Russell S., Wyn, Alexander, Theodore. Married Geraldine DeBenedetti, June 20, 1982.
Children: Cassandra, Grant.