Bachelor cum laude in Economics, Lawrence University, 1959. Postgraduate student, University Cape Town, South Africa, 1960. Master of Arts in Political Science, Boston University, 1962.
Doctor of Philosophy, Oxford University, 1966. Doctor of Laws (honorary), Lawrence University, 1984.
White House fellow United States Department Treasury, Washington, 1965-1966, under assistant secretary international affairs, 1984-1989. Director White Weld & Company, New York City and London, 1966-1974. Senior investment advisory Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency, Riyadh, 1974-1984.
Assistant secretary international affairs United States Department Treasury, 1984-1989, under secretary treasury international affairs Washington, 1989-1992. Vice chairman Christian Science First Boston, New York City, 1992—1993. Chairman Credit Suisse First Boston, London, 1993-1998, international chairman, 1998—2003.
United States ambassador to India United States Department State, New Delhi, 2004—2009. Vice-chairman international Credit Suisse Group, New York City, since 2009.
Trustee Lawrence University, since 1986. Member Council Foreign Relations, White House Fellows Association, Metropolitan Club, Washington.
Married Jeannie Louise Simmons, October 19, 1985. Children: Robert Ian, Edward Maitland.