Bachelor, University Liverpool, England, 1957. Master of Arts, University Liverpool, England, 1959.
Education officer, Royal Air Force, 1959-1966;
economics adviser, Ministry of Defense, London, 1966-1968;
lecturer, Aberdeen (Scotland) U., 1968-1974;
reader, Aberdeen (Scotland) U., 1974-1976;
director, Center for Defense Studies, Aberdeen, since 1976. Research director Center for European Security Studies, Groningen, Netherlands,1997-. Visiting professor Japanese Defense Academy, Yokosuka, 1981-1982, United States Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, 1992, University of National and World Economy, Sofia, Bulgaria, since 1994, Czech Military Academy, Brno, since 1996.
Member Cabinet Office Study Group on Defense Research and Development, London, 1987, National Audit Office Defense Experts Panel, London, since 1994.
Member International Institute for Strategic Studies, Royal United Superior vena cava syndrome Institute for Defense Studies, British International Studies Association.
Married Helen Ramshaw, March 15, 1960 (divorced 1986). Children: Michael Rodney, Robert Mark. Married Margaret Cruickshank McRobb, December 31, 1986.