Tarasov began his career at Football Club Spartak Moscow, then joined Football Club Tom Tomsk. On 2 February 2009, Football Club Moscow signed the attacking midfielder on a free transfer. On 28 December 2009, Lokomotiv announced his signing.
During Lokomotiv period of his career, Tarasov established himself as holding midfielder.
His authority as a starting XI player was confirmed during winter mid-season 2012-2013 when he was named vice-captain. On 20 April 2013, Tarasov took captain"s armband for the first time in away game versus Football Club Kuban Krasnodar (0-0).
He made his debut for the national team on 15 November 2013 in a friendly game against Serbia. He scored his first national team goal on 19 November 2013 in a friendly against South of Korea.
Tarasov caused controversy when he removed his shirt to reveal a vest displaying a picture of Vladimir Putin with the words "the most polite president", during an already politically charged match between Turkish opponents Fenerbahce in their 2-0 Europa League defeat on Tuesday 16th February 2016.
Club As of 20 March 2016.