Master of Arts, University St. Andrews, 1951. Doctor of Philosophy, University Aberdeen, 1994.
Assistant principal, Scottish Office, Edinburgh, 1953-1958;
principal, Scottish Office, Edinburgh, 1962-1966;
assistant secretary, Scottish Office, Edinburgh, 1969-1983;
under secretary, Scottish Office, Edinburgh, 1983-1988. Assistant private secretary Secretary of State for Scotland, London, 1958-1959. Assistant secretary Royal Commision on Police, London, 1960-1962.
Secretary Royal Commision on Local Government in Scotland, Edinburgh, 1966-1969. Chairman Departmental Committee on the Environment, Edinburgh, 1985-1988.
Session clerk Buccleuch & Greyfriars Church, since 1975.
Married Elizabeth Ailsa Barr, July 21, 1965. Children: Janet, Alasdair, Colin.