Bachelor of Arts University Chicago, 1943. Master of Arts University Iowa, 1947.
Instructor, Indiana University, 1947. Assistant Professor, Association Professor, Duke University, 1950-1957,1958-1960. Association Professor, Columbia University, 1960-1965.
Professor of Economics, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America, since 1965.
In my life in economics I believe that I have done something to show how racial discrimination ‘really’ operated in American labour markets before 1965. Tied up a few loose ends in mainstream capital theory. Helped to rescue the treatment of monopolistic and/or imperfect competition from the wilderness into which it had been driven by the uncritical disciples of Edward Chamberlin and Joe Bain.
And made a contribution to improving the quality of economic and legal thought applied to the problems of regulation and antitrust. Since first reading Frank Knight and Joseph Schumpeter I have been fascinated by the interaction between ideas and events in the formation of economic policies but as yet have reached few firm conclusions.