Bachelor summa cum laude, Fresno State College, 1960. Doctor of Philosophy, University Southern California, 1972.
Instructor University California, Riverside, 1968—1970. Assistant professor University Kentucky, Lexington, 1970—1974. Lecturer California State University, Northridge, 1983, University of California at Los Angeles, 1983.
Visiting professor University Trento, Italy.
Member of Organization American Historians, Society Italian History Studies, American History Association, Phi Kappa Phi.
Married Axel Leijonhufvud, June 18, 1977. Stepchildren: Gabriella Leijonhufvud, Christina Leijonhufvud.