Master of Laws, University Helsinki, 1954. License law, University Helsinki, 1955. Doctor of Law, University Helsinki, 1962.
Doctor of Law honoris causa, University Stockholm, Sweden, 1984. Doctor of Economy honoris causa, University Gothenburg, Sweden, 1978.
Assistant professor University Helsinki, 1958-1962, professor public law, 1963-1998, vice rector, 1971-1983, professor emeritus, since 1999. Board directors on numerous companies and foundations.
Chairman Grankulla City Council, since 1977, member, since 1969. Chairman, member several Finnish Governmental committees. Member Nordic Council Tax Research (chairman 1973-1982), Science Society Fennica, Science Academy Finland, Norwegian Academy of Sciences.
Married Gunnel Ingeborg Westerlund, December 7, 1957. Children: Agneta, Robert, Karin.