Candidate Philol.Sc., Leningrad. University, 1947; Doctor of Philological Sciences, Leningrad. University, 1965; Docteur d'Etat, Sorbonne, University Paris, 1975.
Dr honoris causa, University Geneva, 1999.
Teacher Faculty Romance Languages Leningrad Pedagogical Institute, 1952-1974. Participant in World War II. Doctor of Philological Studies, 1965. Editor of a series on modern Russian poets. In 1963, defence witness at the trial of Iosif Brodskii. Degrees and title of professor removed, expelled from Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics Union of Writers for defense of various poets, 1974. Left Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics, 1974.
Now member faculty University de Paris X, 1986, professor emeritus, 1986-1992. Professor universities Geneva, Lausanne, Venezia, Cologne, Jerusalem, Helsinki, Harvard, Eugene, Oregon, Columbus, Ohio, Barcelona, Spain, Praha, Middlebury College, Vienna, Russian School Norwich, University Vermont.
Author: Poetry and Translation, 1963, Bertolt Brecht, 1971, Russian Poet-Translators from Trediakovsky to Pushkin, 1973, The Substance of Verse and the Problems of the Theory of Translation, 1974, Notes of a non-Conspirator, 1977, Form as Content, 1977, Un art en crise (Essai d'une poétique de la traduction poétique), 1981, Poésie Russe, Anthology 18th-20th Centuries, 1983, Russische Lyrik von der Oktoberrevolution bis zur Gegenwart, Versuch einer Darstellung, 1985, Symmetry in the Poems of Pushkin, 1988, 323 Epigrams of Soviet-Russia, 1988, Inside (about Russian poetry of 20th century), 1996, The Interior Person and the Exterior Speaking (about the Russian novel), 1997. Translator: The Little Freedom (translations German poetry of 5 centuries) (E. Etkind), 1998.
Religious moral codes pervert people outside their group as less moral. Thus, religion is socially divisive and its effect is harmful for society.
Individuals have rights to express freedom if it safeguarde the interests of a collective.Every Soviet citizen has rights to express his or her opinion, but it should be in accordance with the general interests of the society.
Served with Soviet Army, World World War World War II. Member Bavarian Academy Fine Arts (correspondent), Academy of Sciences and Literature Mainz (correspondent), German Academy Language and Poetry (correspondent), Academy Human Sciences (St. Petersburg).
Married Katherine Zvorykina, 1940. 2 children; married Elke Liebs, 1994.