Lycée Victor-Hugo, Marrakesh. Lycée Descartes, Rabat. Faculty of Arts, Rabat and Montpellier, Faculty of Economic Science, Montpellier.
Graduated in arts; diploma, advanced studies in American literature. Diploma, general university. studies, economic science. Studied at École Nationale d’administration (National School of Administration), 1971-1974.
Financial Attaché, French Embassy in London, 1979-1981. Head of Office for European, American and Asian Affairs, under direction of the Treasury, 1981. Technical Adviser to the cabinet of Jacques Delors, Minister of Economy and Finance, 1982.
Technical Adviser, 1982-1988. Researcher to the Pres, of the French Republic, since 1988. Secretary-General, Interministerial Committee for Questions of European Economic Co-operation, since 1985.
Delegate, Interministerial Mission for countries of central and eastern Europe, since 1990. Minister Delegate to the Minister of State, Minister of Foreign Affairs, responsible for European Affairs, currently Minister Delegate responsible for European Affairs. Civil servant. Ministry of Finance, under the direction of the Treasury, 1974.
Civil servant, office of the Treasury, 1974-1975, office of Banking, 1976-1978, office of Financial Markets, 1978-1979. Deputy reporter. Finance Commission for the VII Plan, 1975-1978. Head of Conference Management, Institute of Political Studies, Paris, 1976.