He was a natural child of Friedrich Wilhelm von Stenger (1770–1832) and was registered in the Russian nobility on 4 May 1837. Feodor Trepov began his military career in 1831 by participating in the suppression of the November Uprising in Poland in 1830 and 1831. He then commanded a cavalry regiment of gendarmes in Kiev.
He distinguished himself during the suppression of another uprising in Poland in 1863–1864
After Dmitry Karakozov"s assassination attempt on Alexander II in 1866, Trepov was appointed chief of Saint St. Petersburg"s police force.
He managed to put the city in order and improved the performance of the police. In 1867, Trepov was promoted to the rank of adjutant general.
He was the Governor of Saint St. Petersburg between 1873 and 1878. In 1878, Vera Zasulich shot and wounded Trepov after he had ordered the flogging of a political prisoner.
Trepov survived the much publicized assassination attempt and soon retired with the rank of cavalry general.
Anastasia Feodorovna Trepova (1849-?) was married with Maximilian Karl von Nieroth (1846–1914)
Dmitri Feodorovich Trepov (1855–1906) chief of police of Moscow 1896-1905, governor.gen. of Saint-St. Petersburg 12.01.1905-1914.04.1905
Alexander Trepov (1862–1928) Minister for transports, President of the ministers council 23.11.1916-1919.01.1917.