Filimon was the first Voronezh "archaeologist", whose actions initiated the study of monuments of the Paleolithic era - Kostenok.
In April 1696, Katasonov, on behalf of Peter the Great, was sent from Voronezh to the city of Kostensk "to search for large bones." Locale people were provided to Katasonov to help in excavations. Katasonov soon left military service because of the injury.
In 1702 Filimon was appointed a clerk to Borisoglebsk, then an overseer of bargains (notary). He held this position from 1706 to 1734 years. In 1708, when the city was taken by the troops of ataman K.A. Bulavin, Katasonov did not take the side of the rebels.