He was educated at L"Islet, at the Collège de Sainte-Anne-de-la-Pocatière and the Université Laval.
He represented L"Islet in the Legislative Assembly of Quebec from 1886 to 1902 as a Liberal. Miville Dechêne was admitted to the Quebec bar in 1883 and set up practice at Quebec City. He contributed to the Quebec weekly l"Union libérale.
Miville Dechêne served in the Quebec cabinet as Commissioner of Agriculture from 1897 to 1901 and Minister of Agriculture from 1901 to 1902.
He died in office at Quebec City at the age of 43.