He learned the art of warfare in Dresden, Saxony. In 1708 he joined the Dutch Army and fought in the War of the Spanish Succession. In 1715 he returned to Saxony and fought against Sweden.
In 1716 he fought under Prince Eugene of Savoy against the Turks and participated in the Siege of Belgrade (1717).
In 1732 he led an army of 7,000 men for Genoa against the insurgents in Corsica. In the, he commanded an army corps on the Italian front under Marshal Claudius Florimund Mercy.
They suffered a defeat in the Battle of San Pietro and Mercy was killed. Then Württemberg and Marshal Koenigsegg struggled for command, disturbing the preparations and readiness of the Austrian troops.
This contributed to a second defeat in the Battle of Guastalla, where Württemberg was killed.
On 22 October 1722 Frederick Louis married 42-year-old Ursula Catharina von Altenbockum, divorced Countess Lubomirski and one of many ex-mistresses of August II the Strong. They had no children.