Betegh studied at Eötvös Loránd University, at Cambridge University (under Sedley), and at the École des hautes études en sciences sociales in Paris, under Jacques Brunschwig.
He is the eighth Laurence Professor of Ancient Philosophy at Cambridge University, having succeeded David Sedley in October 2014. His Doctor of Philosophy dissertation was on the Derveni Papyrus. Betegh was a professor at the Central European University in Budapest from 2001 to 2014 where he retains a visiting professorship.
He has also been a visiting professor at Cornell University.
He is now a fellow of Christ"s College, Cambridge.
Married Ágnes Sándor Betegh. Children: Júlia, Zsófia.