Common-law wife of the anarchist leader, N. Makhno, during the Civil War. Head of the commission of Anti-Makhno Affairs (security service) in charge of terror actions. After the defeat of Makhno, fled with him to Rumania, and then to Poland, where they were imprisoned.
Gave birth to Makhno’s daughter in a Warsaw prison. Later released, and moved to Paris. During World War II, in labour camps in Germany.
Handed over to SMERSH in 1945. Sent to the Gulag. Released under Khrushchev. In the 1960s, visited Gulai Pole, the former HQ of the Makhno cavalry.