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Georg Philipp Friedrich Freiherr von Hardenberg Edit Profile

also known as Novalis

mystic , Philosopher , poet

Georg Philipp Friedrich Freiherr von Hardenberg (Novalis) was a poet, an imaginative writer, philosopher and one of the leading philosophical thinkers of early German Romanticism. Novalis' main work is considerd to be "Heinrich von Ofterdingen". Georg Philipp Friedrich Freiherr von Hardenberg died on 25 March 1801 of tuberculosis.

Background

Georg Philipp Friedrich Freiherr von Hardenberg was born on 2 May 1772 at Oberwiederstadt manor. His faminly descended from the low-Saxon nobility. Novalis' father, Heinrich Ulrich Erasmus von Hardenberg, was the manager of a salt mine and was known as a pietist and member of the Herrenhuter (Moravian) Church. His second wife, Auguste Bernhardine von Hardenberg (neé von Bölzig), gave birth to eleven children, the second of whom was Friedrich.

Education

At the Lutheran grammar school in Eisleben Georg Philipp Friedrich Freiherr von Hardenberg concentrated in rhetoric and ancient literature, in line with the general educational guidelines.

Novalis studied Law from 1790 to 1794 at Jena, Leipzig and Wittenberg. He passed his exams with distinction. During his studies, he attended Schiller's lectures on history. From his period as a student in Jena onwards, von Hardenberg was well connected with the dominant intellectual circles of the time. He was acquainted with Goethe, Herder and Jean Paul, and befriended Ludwig Tieck, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, and the brothers Friedrich and August Wilhelm Schlegel.

Career

Novalis worked as actuary for August Coelestin Just. August Coelestin Just his superior, also his friend and, later, his biographer. In January, 1796 Novalis started his career in the management of salt mines.

Works

  • collection of aesthetic-philosophical fragments and reflections (1798)

    • Pollen (Blüthenstaub)

  • collection of fragments (1798)

    • Faith and Love or the King and the Queen / Glauben und Liebe, oder der König und die Königin

  • lyrical cicle (1800)

    • Hymns to the Night / Hymnen an die Nacht

  • notes (1798/99)

    • Notes for a Romantic Encyclopaedia / Das Allgemeine Brouillon

  • novel

    • The Novices at Sais

  • novel (1800-02)

    • Heinrich von Ofterdingen

  • poem (1791)

    • Klagen eines Jünglings

  • political-religious tract (1799)

    • Christendom or Europa / Die Christenheit, oder Europa

Religion

Novalis tended to valorize religion over philosophy and art.

Politics

Novalis in his works attempted to create a higher union between politics, art and religion.

Views

For Novalis philosophy involves a process of maturity and self-understanding. Novalis relies on the paradoxical priniciple that philosophy 'must be systemlessness brought into a system'. Johann Gottlieb Fichte's foundationalism led Novalis to an idea that the absolute is no longer something which can be made positively accessible to philosophy. Novalis introduced a very modern idea of temporality: 'Time can never stop – we cannot think away time – for time is the condition of the thinking being – time only stops with thinking'. Novalis' philosophical postition can be summed up in his claim that 'The absolute which is given to us can only be recognised negatively by acting and finding that what we are seeking is not reached by any action', or, in short 'We everywhere seek the unconditioned (das Unbedingte), and always only find things (Dinge)'.

Interests

  • Philosophers & Thinkers

    Johann Gottlieb Fichte

Connections

a father:
Heinrich Ulrich Erasmus Freiherr von Hardenberg - Germany - salt-mine manager

Heinrich Ulrich Erasmus Freiherr von Hardenberg was known as a strictly pietistic man and member of the Herrenhuter (Moravian) Church.

a mother:
Auguste Bernhardine von Hardenberg (neé von Bölzig)

The second wife of Heinrich Ulrich Erasmus Freiherr von Hardenberg. Gave birth to eleven children.

fiancée:
Sophie von Kühn - Germany
Sophie von Kühn - fiancée of Georg Philipp Friedrich Freiherr von Hardenberg

Christiane Wilhelmine Sophie von Kühn was engaged to Novalis at the age of 13. Her image appears in Novalis’ "Hymns to the Night". Sophie died in March 1797 of tuberculosis at the age of 15. Her early death had a serious effect on Novalis.

fiancée:
Julie von Charpentier - Germany
Julie von Charpentier - fiancée of Georg Philipp Friedrich Freiherr von Hardenberg

A daughter of german geologist, mine inspector and professor in Freiberg, Johann Friedrich Wilhelm von Charpentier. Novalis became engaged to Julie in December 1798.

a friend:
Ludwig Tieck - Germany - translator , poet, novelist , ctiric
Ludwig Tieck - a friend of Georg Philipp Friedrich Freiherr von Hardenberg

Novalis together with Ludeig Tieck, the two brothers August and Friedrich Schlegel were the leaders of the new German Romantic school.

a friend:
August Wilhelm Schlegel - Germany - critic , translator , poet
August Wilhelm Schlegel - a friend of Georg Philipp Friedrich Freiherr von Hardenberg

a friend:
Frihdrih Schlegel
Frihdrih Schlegel - a friend of Georg Philipp Friedrich Freiherr von Hardenberg

a friend:
Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling - Germany - Philosopher
Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling - a friend of Georg Philipp Friedrich Freiherr von Hardenberg

a friend:
Friedrich Schiller
Friedrich  Schiller - a friend of Georg Philipp Friedrich Freiherr von Hardenberg

Novalis attended Schiller's lectures while studying in 1790. Novalis befriended Schiller during his illness.