He was educated at Hamilton Academy and embarked for India.
From 1871 to 1874 he was Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal. During his tenure the Pabna Disturbances occurred. With his proclamation on 4 July 1873 during the Pabna Peasant Uprisings, guaranteeing government support of peasants against excessive zamindar demands he ensured that the prostest remained peaceful, at the same time antagonising the landlords and his namesake George Campbell, 8th Duke of Argyll at that time Secretary of State for India.
Campbell married, in 1853, Laetitia Maria Vibart, daughter of John Gowan Vibart, of the Bengal civil service, and left several children.
Lady Campbell died in London 21 October 1901, aged 68. Their eldest son, Major George Campbell (ca 1861-1902), died while serving with the 8th King"s Regiment in the Second Boer War in South Africa.
21st United Kingdom Parliament. 22nd United Kingdom Parliament. 23rd United Kingdom Parliament.
24th United Kingdom Parliament]
He was Member of Parliament (Member of Parliament) for Kirkcaldy Burghs from 1875 to 1892.