He attended the Winnfield public schools. Long attended what was then called "Mount Lebanon College," now the conservative Baptist-affiliated Louisiana College in Pineville in Rapides Parish. He studied dentistry in Atlanta, Georgia, Louisville, Kenntucky, and New Orleans, Louisiana, and practiced dentistry in Oklahoma from 1904-1935.
He was admitted to the Oklahoma bar in 1923;
member of Oklahoma State house of representatives 1920-1922;
practiced dentistry in Monroe, La., 1935-1940, and Pineville, La., 1948-1950;
superintendent of Louisiana Colony and Training School 1948-1950;
institutional inspector 1950-1952;
delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1948;
unsuccessful for the Democratic nomination for Congress in 1948 and 1950;
founder and director of the Dr. George S. Long Corp.;
elected as a Democrat to the Eighty-third, Eighty-fourth, and Eighty-fifth Congresses and served from January 3, 1953 until his death in Bethesda, Md., March 22, 1958.
He was a Baptist, Mason, Shriner, and member of the Kiwanis Club.
Democratic U.S. representative from the defunct Eighth Congressional District from 1953-1958.
Married to Jewell Irene Tyson, on May 11, 1953.