He attended the common schools, and Walkill Academy, Middletown, New New York He studied law and graduated from the Albany Law School in 1857.
Beebe was admitted to the bar in 1857 and commenced practice in Monticello, New New York He moved to Peoria, Illinois, in 1857 and became editor of the Central Illinois Democrat. He was appointed by President Buchanan as secretary of the Territory in 1859, and was Acting Governor in 1860 and 1861.
Beebe moved to Saint Joseph, Missouri, in 1861 and to Virginia City, Nevada, in 1863, continuing the practice of law.
He was an unsuccessful candidate for associate judge of the State supreme court in 1865, and returned to Monticello, New New York He became editor of the Republican Watchman in 1866.
Commissioned by Governor Dix as chief of artillery with the rank of colonel in the Fifth Division, National Guard of New York, in 1873, he resigned in 1874 to enter Congress. Elected as a Democrat to the Forty-fourth and Forty-fifth Congresses Beebe was United States Representative for the fourteenth district from March 4, 1875 to March 3, 1879.
He served as chairman of the Committee on Expenditures in the Department of the Navy (Forty-fourth Congress), and was on the Committee on Mines and Mining (Forty-fifth Congress).
An unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1878 to the Forty-sixth Congress, he resumed his former newspaper pursuits. He stayed in Monticello until 1892 when he moved to Ellenville, New New York He retired from active business pursuits in 1900.
Beebe died in Ellenville, New York, on March 1, 1927 (age 90 years, 124 days).
He is interred at Woodlawn Cemetery, New Windsor, New New York
He moved to Troy, Doniphan County, Territory of Kansas, in 1858. And continued the practice of law, and served as member of the Territorial council in 1858 and 1859. An unsuccessful candidate for the State senate in 1871, he was a member of the New York State Assembly (Sullivan Company) in 1873 and 1874.
A delegate to the Democratic National Conventions in 1876, 1880, and 1892, Beebe also served as member of the State court of claims from 1883 until 1900.