Bachelor cum laude, Villanova University, Pennsylvania, 1952. Master of Arts in Political Science, Auburn University, Alabama, 1971. Doctor of Philosophy (honorary), Villanova University, 1987.
Commissioned Second lieutenant United States Marine Corps Reserve, 1952, advanced through grades to general. Service in Korea, Haiti, Vietnam, Europe and Grenada. Deputy director operations (J-3) United States European Command, 1978-1980.
Deputy chief staff research affairs Headquarters United States Marine Corps, 1980-1982. Vice director joint staff Joint Chiefs Staff, 1982-1984. Deputy chief staff installations and logistics Headquarters Marine Corps and Quartermaster General, United States Marine Corps, 1984-1985.
Chief staff Headquarters United States Marine Corps, 1985. Commander in chief CinC United States Center Command, 1985-1988, retired. Private consultant, writer international affairs Treasure Island, Florida, since 1988.
Member Marine Corps Association, Marine Corps League, DAV, Foreign Affairs Council, American-Arab Affairs Council, Phi Sigma Alpha.
Married Barbara Clay, May 25, 1957. Children: William, David.