Diploma, Institute Political Science, Paris, 1974. Master of Letters, Cambridge (England) University, 1977. Doctoral degree, Sorbonne.
Doctoral degree, Institute Political Science, Paris, 1980.
Assistant professor Institute Political Studies Secretary to French Association of Political Science, Paris, 1977-1980, associate professor, 1980-1990. Director civilian affairs committee North Atlantic Assembly, Brussels, 1983-1990. Deputy director, head of external relations North Atlantic Treaty Organization headquarters, 1990-1994.
Advisor French Minister of Defense, Paris, 1995-1997. Director studies and research Foundation for Defense Studies, since 1997. Professor University Paris II, since 1995.
Board directors Center for Analysis of European Security. Founder Center United States and France, Brookings Institute, Washington, 1999. Head French Center on United States, IFRI, since 1999.
Member International Institute for Strategic Studies, French Institute International Relations, Royal Institute for International Affairs (associate).
Married Lucie Anne Carswell, June 23, 1990. Children: Quentin, Daphné.