Bachelor in Journalism, Northwestern University, 1959. Master of Arts in History, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts, 1970. Doctor of Philosophy in History, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts, 1997.
Reporter, editorial writer Honolulu Advertiser, 1960. Reporter Chicago Sun-Times, 1961-1963, Chicago Daily News, 1964, foreign correspondent Paris, 1965-1966. Book researcher Houghton-Mifflin, South Vietnam, 1967-1968.
Assistant professor University Hawaii, Honolulu, 1970-1972. Freelance writer, 1973-1977. Special assistant to Republican Cecil Heftel United States House Representatives, Washington, 1978-1979.
Legislation counselor to Senator Spark Matsunaga United States Senate, 1980-1986. President United States International Space Year Association, 1987-1993. Freelance writer, 1995-1998.
With Office of Policy and Quality Assurance Congressional Research Service Library. Congress, since 1999.
Member American Historical Association, Society Professional Journalists, Organization American Historians, Society Military History, American Society Environmental History, We. History Association.
Married Gladys Smestad, December 14, 1976. Stepchildren: Rick, Olaf, Dawn, Sara, Dan.