Master of Science in Economic, Helsinki School Economic, Finland, 1972. Licence in business administration, Helsinki School Economic, Finland, 1981. Doctor in Business Administration, Helsinki School Economic, Finland, 1986.
Acting associate professor business administration Swedish School of Economics, Helsinki, 1982-1987, associate professor business administration, 1987-1991. Professor business administration Vaasa (Finland) University, since 1991, vice dean, faculty business administration, 1992-1994. Chairman Jt. Committee Nordic Social Science Research Councils, 1992-1993.
Member steering committee Cost A3 Action (European Union research program), 1992-1996.
Member Strategic Management Society, Nordic Society Business Administration (board directors 1992-2002).
Married Ulla M. Ikkala, 1981. Children: Satu, Karl, William.