Educated Chambersburg (Pennsylvania) Academy. Doctor of Laws, University Chile, Juniata College, Dickinson College, Lafayette College.
Admitted to bar, 1894. Official reporter 39th Judicial District, Pennsylvania, 1891-1898. Private Troop K, 1st United States Cavalry Volunteer (Rough Riders), 1898.
First lieutenant, batn. adjunct 40th United States Volunteer Infantry, serving in Philippine Islands, 1899-1901.
2d secretary American Legation, Cuba, 1902-1903, China, 1903-1905. Secretary American Legation to Portugal, 1905-1907.
1st secretary American Legation, China. 1907-1909; charge d’affaires, 1907-1908.
1909-1910; appointed Envoy Extraordinary anu Minister Plenipotentiary, Chile, 1909.
Appointed Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, Chile, 1914, Mexico, 1916, resigned, 1920. Under secretary of state, 1921-1922. Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Belgium, 1922-1924.
Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Italy, 1924-1929, when resigned.
Chairman of the United States delegation to 5th Pan-American Conference, Santiago, Chile, 1923. Delegate 6th Pan-American Conference, Habana, 1928.
Chairman United States delegation to International Conference for Protection of Literary and Artistic Property, Rome, 1928. Member Special Commission to Investigate and Report upon Conditions in Haiti, 1929.
Chairman United States Tariff Commission, 1930-1931.
Chairman Republican National Committee, 1934-1936. Delegate to Republican National Convention 1936, 1940. General counsel Republican National Committee, member Executive Committee, 1936-1944.
Special adviser Secretary of State, 1944-1945.
Member American Society International Law, Council, of Foreign Relations, Sons of the American Revolution, Scotch-Irish Society of Pennsylvania, Kittochtinny History Society. Clubs: Metropolitan (Washington).
Married Beatrice Bend, July 25, 1917 (died September 9, 1941).