Bachelor, Brooklyn College, 1936. Doctor of Philosophy in Physics, Johns Hopkins University, 1940. Doctor of Science (honorary), University Tübingen, Federal Republic Germany, 1977.
Doctor of Science (honorary), University Michigan, 1979.
With, United States Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, since 1940;
superintendent atmosphere and astrophysics division, United States Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, 1958-1963;
superintendent space science division, United States Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, 1963-1980;
chief scientist E. O. Hulburt Center Space Research, United States Naval Research Laboratory, 1963-1980;
emeritus, chief scientist, United States Naval Research Laboratory, Earth Observation Hulburt Center for Space Research, since 1980. Adjunct Professor physics U. Maryland., 1960-1980, University of Pennsylvania, since 1974. Visiting professor Yale University, 1966-1968.
Martin-Marietta fellow in Space Science, NASM, 1986-1987. Member space science board National Academy Sciences-National Research Council, 1962-1975, 86-, Chairman of Commission on solar-terrestrial research, 1968-1971. Member committee science public policy National Academy Sciences, 1967-1971, member geophysics research board, 1969-1971, chairman, 1976-1979, member of advisory committee international organizations and programs, 1969-1977.
President Interunion Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 1967-1974. President special commission on solar-terrestrial physics International Council for Science, 1975-1980. Chairman COSPAR working group II, International Quiet Sun Year.
Vice president COSPAR, 1970-1975, 86-. Member General Advisory Committee on Atomic Energy, 1968-1973. Member President's Science Advisory Committee, 1970-1973,Advisory Board Fermi Laboratory, 1986-1988.
Chairman commission on physical science, math and resources National Research Council, 1984-1986.
Fellow American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (honorary, Space Science award 1963, International Cooperation in Space Science medal 1991), American Physical Society, American Optical Society, American Geophysical Union (president section on solar-planetrary relationships 1967-1970, Bowie medal 1981), American Astronautical Society (Lovelace award 1973), American Association for the Advancement of Science (vice president 1972). Member National Academy of Sciences (council 1979-1982, chairman assembly of mathematics and physical science 1980-1983), American Academy Arts and Sciences, International Academy Astronautics, American Philosophical Society (council since 1992). Honorary member Special Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 1984.
Married Gertrude Miller, 1940. Children– Paul, Jon.