Master of Arts with honors, St. Andrew's University, Scotland, 1948. Master of Arts, Cambridge (England) University, 1954.
Research officer, U. Cambridge, 1950-1957; lecturer, U. Edinburgh, Scotland, 1957-1958; senior lecturer, U. Edinburgh, Scotland, 1958-1961; reader in economics, U. Edinburgh, Scotland, 1961-1967; professor economics, U. Edinburgh, Scotland, 1967-1984; professor emeritus economics, U. Edinburgh, Scotland, since 1984. Visiting associate professor University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1962. Visiting professor University of Southern California, Columbia, 1975.
Board of directors Scottish Provident Institution, Edinburgh, 1980-1990, British Library., London, 1980-1987. Governor Fettes College, Edinburgh, 1976-1989. Lay assessorRestrictive Practices Court, London, 1984-1993.
Flight Lieutenant Royal Air Force, 1942-1946. Member New Club Edinburgh.
Married Mary Katharine Oddie, June 18, 1949. Children: Fiona Mary, Alasdair Bruce, Kate Cockburn.