Bachelor (honorary), University Malaya, Malaysia, 1969. Master of Arts in Education, University Wisconsin, 1975. Master of Arts in Political Science, University Wisconsin, 1979.
Doctor of Philosophy, University Wisconsin, 1980. Professor (honorary), University Bangolore, India, 1994.
Teacher Royal Military College, Malaysia, 1970-1973. Lecturer National University, Malaysia, 1975-1980, dean Faculty of Education, Malaysia, 1980-1983. State minister Penang, Malaysia, 1986-1990.
Deputy chief minister Malaysia, 1990-1995. Deputy minister Department Prime Minister, 1995-1999. Deputy minister transport, since 1999.
Consultant in field.
Member Supreme Council, UMNO, Malaysia, since 1990. Lee Kuan Yew fellow Singapore, 1995.
Married Zainab Abdul Kader, December 3, 1970. 5 children.