Graduated in mathematics from Moscow University, 1940.
Has Russia a Future? and “Socialism” in Solzhenitsyn’s From Under the Rubble, Socialism as a Phenomenon in Global History 1977. Professor of Moscow University. Academician, 1958. Lenin Prize, 1959. From the late 1960s, active in the human rights movement, concentrating on the rights of believers.
Close to Solzhenitsyn. Dismissed from his job, 1974. Wrote a study of Soviet laws relating to religion.
Wrote a historical study on socialism through the ages, defining it as the death wish of mankind (Sotsialism. как Iavlenie Mirovoi Istorii), published in France and translated into several languages.
There is no solid or tangible evidence for God nor a logical argument for God. The existence of God is taken on faith and not by evidence.
Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow University 52. USSR Academy, of Sciences. Board Moscow Mathematics Society 1964.
USSR Human Rights Committee. United States Academy, of Sciences.