Student, Tartu University Medical Faculty, Estonia, 1943. Medical candid. examination, Karolinska Mediko-Kirurgiska Institute, Stockholm, 1945. Doctor of Medicine cum laude, Yale University, 1947.
Intern, assistant resident Grace-New Haven Community Hospital, 1947-1949. Assistant in medicine Yale University School Medicine, 1947-1949. Assistant and assistant physician The Rockefeller Institute, New York City, 1949-1953, associate and associate physician, 1953-1956, associate professor, associate physician, 1956-1958, associate professor and physician, 1958-1964.
Professor and senior physician The Rockefeller University, 1964-1986, Abby Rockefeller Mauzé professor and senior physician, 1986-1992, emeritus, 1992-1995. Associate member Commission on Acute Respiratory Diseases, Armed Forces Epidemiological Board, 1961-1973. Member virology and rickettsiology study section National Institutes of Health, 1964-1968.
Member board science consultant Sloan-Kettering Institute Cancer Research, 1966-1975, vice chairman, 1971-1972, chairman, 1972-1973. Member study panel for allergy and infectious diseases Health Research Council of City of New York, 1968-1975. Member American Cancer Society advisory committee on virology and cell biology, 1969-1974.
General chairman task force on virology National Institute Allergy and Infectious Diseases, 1976-1978.
Contributor 255 science papers on biology of viruses and cells. Associate editor Journal Immunology, 1957-1959, proceedings Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 1963-1966. Advisory editor Journal Experimental Medicine, 1971-1981.
Honorary editorial board Bio-chemical Pharmacology, 1974-1984. Member editorial board Journal Interferon Research, 1980-1988. Editor symposium on viruses American Journal Medicine, 1965.
Editor: (with F.L. Horsfall) Viral and Rickettsial Infections of Man, 4th edition, 1965.
Fellow American Association for the Advancement of Science, New York Academy of Sciences (Sarah L. Poiley award 1977). Member National Academy of Sciences, American Society Microbiology, American Association Immunologists, Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, American Society Clinical Investigation, American Academy Microbiology, American Society Cell Biology, Society General Microbiology, Association American Physicians, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Hygiene und Mikrobiologie (correspondent), American Society Virology, International Cell Cycle Society, International Society Interferon Research, Harvey Society, Alpha Omega Alpha.
Married Olive Pitkin, May 9, 1953. Children: Carol, Eric, Ellen.