1923 graduated Petrograd Agriculture Institute.
Botanist and phytoculturist. Full member, All-Union Lenin Academy, of Agriculture Science, since 1935. Full member, Estonia Academy of Sciences, since 1946.
Corresponding member, USSR Academy of Science, since 1953. President, Estonia Academy of Sciences, since 1950. Member, Committee Lenin Prizes for Science and Technology, USSR Council of Ministers, since 1960.
Honoured Worker of Science of Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic since 1953. Member and candidate Bureau member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party Lithuania Estonia, since 1961. Specialist in polar phytology and agricultural.
Has studied and performed selection on special groups of early-ripening crops for the Far North. 1923-1940 Head, Polar Department, 1940-1951 Director, All-Union Institute of Phytoculture, Leningrad, until 1930 known as the All-Union Institute of Applied Botany and New Crops. 1957 member, USSR Supreme Soviet delegation to China.
1958-1961 Chairman, Presidium, Estonia Supreme Soviet, and Deputy Chairman, Presidium, USSR Supreme Soviet. Deputy, USSR Supreme Soviet of 1950, 1954 and 1958 convocation. Deputy, Estonia Supreme Soviet of 1955 and 1959 convocation.
Religion discourages exploration of science and universe by suppressing curiosity, and denies its followers a broader perspective.