1910 graduated Medical Faculty, Moscow University.
1925 first to teach specialized anatomy on nosological principle. One of founders of clinical anatomy trend in pathological anatomy. 1930 organized conferences on clinical anatomy, which then became compulsory in all major hospitals.
Chairman and honorary board member, All-Union Society of Pathoanatomists and All-Union Society of Oncologists. Honorary Chairman, Moscow Society of Pathoanatomists. Editor, journal “Arkhiv patologii” (Archives of Pathology).
Member, Editorial Board, multi-volume work on pathological anatomy and “Bolshaya meditsinskaya entsiklopediya” (Large Medical Encyclopedia), 2nd edition. Member, Editor Council, journal “Klinicheskaya meditsina” (Clinical Medicine). 1957 visited Czechoslovakia with M. D. Kovrygina to discuss coordination of public health work between USSR and Czechoslovakia.
1953-1960 Presidium member, then V.-President, USSR Academy of Medical Science. Main works deal with pathological anatomy, pathogenesis of diseases and war injuries. 1910-1912 rural doctor.
1912-1921 assist, 1921-1930 prosector, then lecturer, Chair of Pathological Anatomy, Pirogov, 2nd Moscow Medicine Institute. 1913-1921 prosector, then Assistant, Moscow Yauza Hospital. 1915-1918 junior regiment doctor, then Head, pathological and clinical laboratories on Western Front.
1941-1945 Chief Pathoanatomist, USSR Ministry of Health.
Since religion offers a complete set of answers to the problems of purpose, morality, origins, or science, it discourages exploration of those areas by suppressing curiosity, denies its followers a broader perspective, and prevents social, moral and scientific progress.