Background
The son of George Todhunter, a Nonconformist minister, and Mary née Hume, he was born at Rye, Sussex on the 23rd of November 1820.
(The present work is constructed on the same plan as my tr...)
The present work is constructed on the same plan as my treatise on Plane Trigonometry, to which it is intended as a sequel; it contains all the propositions usually included under the head of Spherical Trigonometry, together with a large collection of examples for exercise. In the course of the work reference is made to preceding writers from whom assistance has been obtained; besides these writers I have consulted the treatises on Trigonometry by Lardner, Lefebure de Fourcy, and Snowball, and the treatise on Geometry published in the Library of Useful Knowledge. The examples have been chiefly selected from the University and College Examination Papers. In the account of Napiers Rules of Circular Parts an explanation has been given of a method of proof devised by Napier, which seems to have been overlooked by most modern writers on the subject. I have had the advantage of access to an unprinted Memoir on this point by the late R. L. Ellis of Trinity College; Mr Ellis had in fact rediscovered for himself Napiers own method. For the use of this Memoir and for some valuable references on the subject I am indebted to the Dean of Ely.Considerable labour has been bestowed on the text in order to render it comprehensive and accurate, and the examples have all been carefully verified; and thus I venture to hope that the work will be found useful by Students and Teachers. In the third edition I have made some additions which I hope will be found valuable. I have considerably enlarged the discussion on the connexion of Formulæ in Plane and Spherical Trigonometry; so as to include an account of the properties in Spherical Trigonometry which are analogous to those of the Nine Points Circle in Plane Geometry. The mode of investigation is more elementary than those hitherto employed; and perhaps some of the results are new. The fourteenth Chapter is almost entirely original, and may deserve attention from the nature of the propositions themselves and of the demonstrations which are given. Cambridge, July
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Highly Recommended for IIT JEE and Olympiads 1000+ Problems with Solutions and 100+ Articles This book collects together the problems set out at end of each chapter in the author's Textbook of Plane Trigonometry along with the possible solutions, which are linked with an explanation of the sort of reasoning used in order to arrive at one of the answers. In many cases, several answers are given for one question. The result is a book which can be used independently of the main volume. This book helps in acquiring a better understanding of the basic principles of Plane Trigonometry and in revising a large amount of the subject matter quickly. It is also to be noticed, that each Example, or Problem is here enunciated at the head of its Solution as well as all the relevant articles are part of the appendix; so that the book, though a fitting Companion to the textbook, is not inseparable from it, but may be used, as a Book of Exercises, with any other treatise on Plane Trigonometry. We are grateful for this opportunity to put the materials into a consistent format, and to correct errors in the original publication that have come to our attention. We are highly indebted to Chandra Shekhar Kumar for the fruitful discussions which led to the idea of masterminding this entire project. He helped us put hundreds of pages of typographically difficult material into a consistent digital format. The process of compiling this book has given us an incentive to improve the layout, to double-check almost all of the mathematical rendering, to correct all known errors, to improve the original illustrations by redrawing them with Till Tantau's marvelous TikZ. Thus the book now appears in a form that we hope will remain useful for at least another generation.
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(In 1810 a work was published inC ambridge under tlie foll...)
In 1810 a work was published inC ambridge under tlie following title AT reatise on I sopertmefrical Problems and the Calculus of Variations. By Robert Woodhome, A.M., F.B.8., Fellow of Caius College, Cambridge. Tbia work details the history of the Calculus of Variations from its origin until the close of the eighteenth century, and has obtained a high reputation for accuracy and clearness. During the present century some of the most eminent mathematicians have endeavoured to enlarge the boundaries of the subject, and it seemed probable that a survey of what had been accomplished would not be destitute of interest and value. Accordingly the present work has been undertaken, and a short account will now be given of its plan. (Typographical errors above are due to OCR software and don't occur in the book.) About the Publisher Forgotten Books is a publisher of historical writings, such as: Philosophy, Classics, Science, Religion, History, Folklore and Mythology. Forgotten Books' Classic Reprint Series utilizes the latest technology to regenerate facsimiles of historically important writings. Careful attention has been made to accurately preserve the original format of each page whilst digitally enhancing the aged text. Read books online for free at www.forgottenbooks.org
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(Excerpt from Solutions to Problems Contained in a Treatis...)
Excerpt from Solutions to Problems Contained in a Treatise on Plane Coordinate Geometry It might also be reached by revolving through an angle so as to reach the position 0d, and then measuring our distance, not along the revolving line od, but along its part 0a produced backwards hence the point can also be defined by the co-ordinates J2. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.
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( This work has been selected by scholars as being cultur...)
This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps (as most of these works have been housed in our most important libraries around the world), and other notations in the work. This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work. As a reproduction of a historical artifact, this work may contain missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and made generally available to the public. We appreciate your support of the preservation process, and thank you for being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant.
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historian mathematician scientist
The son of George Todhunter, a Nonconformist minister, and Mary née Hume, he was born at Rye, Sussex on the 23rd of November 1820.
He was educated at Hastings, at which town his mother had opened a school after the death of his father in 1826. He became an assistant master at a school at Peckham, attending at the same time evening classes at the University College, London. In 1842 he obtained a mathematical scholarship and graduated as B. A. at London University, and was awarded the gold medal on the M. A. examination.
He became mathematical master at a school at Wimbledon. In 1844 he entered St John's College, Cambridge, where he was senior wrangler in 1848, and gained the first Smith's prize and the Burney prize; and in 1849 he was elected to a fellowship, and began his life of college lecturer and private tutor. In 1871 he gained the Adams prize and was elected to the council of the Royal Society. He was elected honorary fellow of St John's in 1874, having resigned his fellowship on his marriage in 1864. In 1880 his eyesight began to fail, and shortly afterwards he was attacked with paralysis. He died at Cambridge on the 16t of March 1884. His major works are: Treatise on the Differential Calculus and the Elements of the Integral Calculus (1852, 6th ed. , 1873), Treatise on Analytical Statics (1853, 4th ed. , 1874); Treatise on the Integral Calculus (1857, 4th ed. , 1874); Treatise on Algebra (1858, 6th ed. , 1871); Treatise on Plane Coordinate Geometry (1858, 3rd ed. , 1861); Plane Trigonometry (1859, 4th ed. , 1869); Spherical Trigonometry (1859); History of the Calculus of Variations (1861); Theory of Equations (1861, 2nd ed. 1875); Examples of Analytical Geometry of Three Dimensions (1858, 3rd ed. , 1873); Mechanics (1867), History of the Mathematical Theory of Probability from the Time of Pascal to that of Lagrange (1865); Researches in the Calculus of Variations (1871); History of the Mathematical Theories of Attraction and Figure of the Earth from Newton to Laplace (1873); Elementary Treatise on Laplace's, Lame's and Bessel's Functions (1875); Natural Philosophy for Beginners (1877). An unfinished work, The History of the Theory of Elasticity, was edited and published posthumously in 1886 by Karl Pearson. Todhunter also published keys to the problems in his textbooks on algebra and trigonometry; and a biographical work, William Whewell, account of his writings and correspondence (1876), in addition to many original papers in scientific journals.
(Highly Recommended for IIT JEE and Olympiads 1000+ Pro...)
(Excerpt from Solutions to Problems Contained in a Treatis...)
(The present work is constructed on the same plan as my tr...)
(In 1810 a work was published inC ambridge under tlie foll...)
(This work has been selected by scholars as being cultural...)
( This work has been selected by scholars as being cultur...)
(This is a pre-1923 historical reproduction that was curat...)
(A treatise on analytical statics, with numerous examples ...)
In 1862 he was made a fellow of the Royal Society, and in 1865 a member of the Mathematical Society of London. In 1871 he was elected to the council of the Royal Society.
He was a sound Latin and Greek scholar, familiar with French, German, Spanish, Italian, and also Russian, Hebrew, and Sanskrit. He was well versed in the history of philosophy, and on three occasions acted as examiner for the moral sciences tripos.
Todhunter married 13 August 1864 to Louisa Anna Maria, eldest daughter of Captain (afterwards Admiral) George Davies.