Graduate in Civil Engineering, École des Mines de Nancy, France, 1964. Graduate in Economics, University Paris, 1966. Graduate, Institut d'Études Politiques, Paris, 1966.
Graduate, École Nationale d'Administration, Strasbourg, France, 1971.
Research engineer SEDES, affiliate of Caisse des Dépôts Group, 1966-1970. Deputy inspector finance Ministry Economy & Finance, France, 1971-1973, general inspectorate finance, 1974, assigned treasury department, 1975, secretary general Interministerial Committee Improving Industrial Structures (CIASI), 1976-1977, advisor to minister economic affairs, 1978, advisor to president of republic, 1978—1981, head development aid office, treasury department, 1981, deputy director bilateral affairs, treasury department, 1981-1984, head international affairs, treasury department, 1985-1986, director private office of minister economic affairs, finance and privatisation, 1986-1987, director treasury department, 1987—1993. Censor to general council Banque de France, Paris, 1987-1993, governor, 1993—2003.
President European Central Bank, Frankfurt, Germany, since 2003. Chairman sovereign debt rescheduling Paris Club, 1985—1993. Alternate governor International Monetary Fund, 1987—1993, 1995—2003, World Bank, 1987—1993, governor, 1993—1995.
Member governor council European Central Bank, since 1998, chairman G10 governors, since 2003. Member council European Monetary Institute.
Married; children: Pierre-Alexis, Jean-Nicolas.