Taniguchi began his career as an assistant of manga artist Kyota Ishikawa. He made his manga debut in 1970 with Kareta Heya (A Desiccated Summer), published in the magazine Young Comic. From 1976 to 1979, he created several hard-boiled comics with the scenarist Natsuo Sekigawa, such as City Without Defense, The Wind of the West is White and Lindo 3.
From 1984 to 1991, Taniguchi and Natsuo Sekigawa produced the trilogy Bocchan Number Jidai.
In the, he came up with several albums, among which Aruku Hito (歩くひと), Chichi no koyomi (The Almanac of My Father), and Keyaki no ki. In 1992-1993 he collaborated with Garon Tsuchiya for the manga Blue Fighter (青の戦士, Ao no Senshi), Knuckle Wars (ナックル・ウォーズ, Nakkuru) and Live! (Live! オデッセイ).
He Illustrated Baku Yumemakura’s works, Garouden from 1989-1990 and Kamigami no itadaki from 2000-2003. In 2001, he created the Icare (Icaro) series on texts by Mœbius.
Jirô Taniguchi gained several prizes for his work.
His work has been translated in many languages.