He attended the public schools and the local college in Warren, Ohio. He studied law.
He was admitted to the bar in 1844 and commenced practice in Warren, Ohio. He was in the Justice of the Peace in 1846. He served as prosecuting attorney of Geauga County in 1847.
He served as a delegate to the Buffalo Free-Soil Convention in 1848.
He was editor of the Western Reserve Chronicle in 1849. He moved to Iowa in 1850 and published the Chardon Democrat.
Raised a company for the Civil War in 1861 and served as its captain. He was wounded in the Battle of Winchester.
He was promoted to the rank of lieutenant colonel in 1862.
Mustered out of the service in 1863 because of wounds received in action. Became Colonel of the 171st Ohio (a One Hundred Day Regiment) in May 1864 to August 1864. Served at the Prisoner Of War Camp at Johnson"s Island, Ohio.
Forced to surrender to John Hunt Morgan seven of the regiment"s companies at Keller"s Bridge, Kentucky on June 12, 1864.
Units were illegally paroled, he and the regiment returned to Johnson"s Island. Mustered out at end of term of service.
He moved to Chillicothe, Missouri, in 1864 and resumed the practice of law. Founded the Spectator in 1866.
He served as delegate to the Republican National Convention in 1868.
Asper was elected as a Republican to the Forty-first (March 4, 1869 – March 3, 1871). He was not a candidate for renomination in 1870. Practiced law until his death.
He died in Chillicothe, Missouri, October 1, 1872.
He was interred in Edgewood Cemetery.
Member United States House