Johann Samuel Eduard d'Alton was a German anatomist born in Sankt Goar.
He was the son of engraver Eduard Joseph d'Alton (1772–1840).
He studied medicine at the University of Bonn, and subsequently taught anatomical drawing at the Berlin Academy of Arts.
After the death of Johann Friedrich Meckel (1781 to 1833), d'Alton was appointed his successor as professor of anatomy at the University of Halle. He maintained this position until his death in 1854. His better known works were in the fields of comparative anatomy, development history and teratology.