He attended the schools of Guernsey County, and high school at Cambridge.
He moved to Cambridge, Ohio in 1920, and moved to a dairy farm in nearby Guernsey County in 1922. He graduated from the Ohio Wesleyan University at Delaware, Ohio in 1939 and from the University of Michigan Law School at Ann Arbor, Michigan in 1942. He joined the United States Army as a private in 1942, and rose to captain of infantry after service in Europe.
He was discharged in 1946 and commenced practice in Cambridge.
Henderson was elected to the Ohio House of Representatives from 1951-1954, and elected as a Republican to the 84th through 86th Congresses, (January 3, 1955 – January 3, 1961). He was not a candidate for re-nomination in 1960, and resumed law practice in Cambridge.
He was a judge of the Guernsey County Court of Common Pleas 1980-1986, and resided in Cambridge until his death on December 3, 1994.