He was educated at Bideford and Plympton grammar schools, and studied medicine at Plymouth Hospital.
Foreign the Australian rugby league football player of the same name, see Rupert Mudge
Several invitations were made to Mudge to try his fortunes in London. But he preferred to remain at Plymouth, where he practised for the remainder of his life, first as surgeon, and, after 1784, when he received the degree of Doctor of Medicine from King"s College, Aberdeen, as a physician. The ‘Directions’ were also issued separately by Bowyer (London, 1778).
Sir John Pringle, the president, in making the presentation, remarked that Isaac Newton had predicted the role of mechanical devices in making parabolic mirrors.
The manufacture of telescopes continued to occupy much of his spare time. Mudge was married three times, and had twenty children.