Amongst the possessions that he brought with him to the colony of New South Wales was a lithographic press, which enabled him to set up the "J.S. Prout and Company Australian Lithographic Establishment."
In the first four years of his residence in Sydney, between 1840 and 1844, Prout undertook a number of sketching tours in the districts around Sydney. Prout followed the route of many artists of the period, journeying west across the Blue Mountains towards Bathurst, south to Broulee and the Illawarra district, and north to Newcastle and Portuguese Stephens.
Returning from these travels, Prout would work up his sketches into finished works in lithographs, watercolour and oil paint for sale.
Whilst Prout was a resident in Sydney he held a number of exhibitions of his work. He also presented lectures on the technique of drawing and painting in watercolour, sold numerous works, and produced a series of lithographic views of the colony, a number of which were published in Sydney illustrated.
Prout returned to England in June 1848.