Bachelor, University of Michigan, 1952; Master of Arts, University of Michigan, 1953; Doctor of Philosophy, University of Michigan, 1961.
Teaching assistant, University of Michigan, 1951-1952; teaching fellow, University of Michigan, 1954-1956; from assistant professor to professor of history, State University of New York, Buffalo, since 1962; director graduate programs in history, State University of New York, Buffalo, 1963-1968, 94-95; director undergraduate programs in history, State University of New York, Buffalo, 1979-1986; acting department chairman, State University of New York, Buffalo, summers, 1977, 78-80, 88. Visiting professor McMaster U., Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, summer 1964, 69-70.
Member Ann Arbor chapter National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, executive board, 1956-1961. Member American Civil Liberties Union, executive board, 1959-1961. Member campaign committees for various candidates for local and national office, 1960-1976.
Member Buffalo National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Buffalo Housing Opportunities Made Equal, Citizens Council on Human Relations, Physicians for Social Responsibility, Common Cause, Amnesty International. Faculty chairman United Fund doctor, 1977. Active Foster Parents Plan, 1955-1970.
Adoptive parent International Social Services. Founder charitable trust for minority college scholarships. Served with United States Army Air Force, 1943-1946, United States Air Force Reserve, 1946-1956.
Member of Society Civil War Historians, Afro-American History Society, Buffalo and Erie County History Society, Southern History Association, Association American Historians, American History Association, State University of New York Buffalo Founders' Society, Buffalo Council for Responsibility in Foreign Policy, State University of New York Buffalo President's Associates, Civil War Round Table, Silver Wings Association, Cambria Flying Society, Niagara Soaring Club, Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association, Soaring Society of America, Experimental Aircraft Association, Phi Alpha Theta, Phi Kappa Phi, Tau Sigma Delta.
Married Joyce Mary Jervis, November 16, 1946. Children: Jacqueline M., Paula J., Mary M., Elizabeth Y.