Dalhousie University (B. Comm., 1964. Bachelor of Laws, 1966). Harvard University (Master of Laws, 1967).
Worked at Smith Lyons (Toronto, ON) specializing in Banking and Financial Institution Lending, Corporate and Commercial, Financial Services Regulation, Insurance, Mergers and Acquisitions, Securities. Admitted to the bar, 1969, Ontario.
Canadian Bar Association. The Canadian Tax Foundation.