A native of Fredericktown, Missouri, Schulte appeared on five Major League Baseball teams in his five-year MLB career. Schulte played as a catcher for the Saint Louis Browns (1923 and 1932), Saint Louis Cardinals (1927), Philadelphia Phillies (1928), Chicago Cubs (1929) and Boston Braves (1932). In Chicago, he played under Joe McCarthy, whom he would later serve as a longtime coach.
After his maiden coaching assignment with the Cubs in 1933, Schulte joined McCarthy and the New York Yankees beginning in 1934.
He coached 15 full seasons (1934-1948) in the Bronx, even serving under Bill Dickey, Johnny Neun and Bucky Harris after McCarthy"s retirement in May 1946. Then, in 1949, he rejoined McCarthy with the Boston Red Sox.
When McCarthy retired for the final time on June 23, 1950, Schulte was reassigned to scouting duties by the Red Sox. He coached in minor league baseball for the Yankees" Kansas City Blues Triple-A affiliate before returning to scouting with the Cleveland Indians.
He died in Saint Louis, Missouri, at the age of 81.