He was governor of the Fortress of Huningue during the siege of the 1815 and held out until the end of hostilities, surrendering the place with full military honours on 26 August 1815. He was initially a sailor, then a captain in the 5th Battalion of the Lower Pyrenees, and Battalion Chief in the consular guard, He was then promoted to colonel of the 48th Infantry Regiment of the line on August 29, 1805, with whom he fought like a hero at Austerlitz, Iéna, and Eylau. He participated in all the Napoleonic campaigns, becoming Brigadier General after the Peace of Tilsit, 21 March 1809.
On August 20, 1809, he became Baron of the Empire.
On the 28 June shortly after word of Napoleon"s abdication became known, and the French Provisional Government had requested a ceasefire, Barbanègre ordered the bombardment of Basel, something that contemporaries on the Seventh Coalition side considers to be a war crime. He died in Paris, aged 58, and is buried in Père Lachaise Cemetery in the area reserved for marshals and generals of the Empire.
In his home village of Pontacq there is a street bearing his name and a statue erected in his honor on the town hall square.