Born in Virginia, Miller attended the common schools. He was graduated from Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, in 1839. He studied law.
He moved to Ohio and settled in Chillicothe. He was admitted to the bar in 1841 and commenced practice in Chillicothe, Ohio. He served as prosecuting attorney of Ross County, Ohio, from 1844 to 1848.
Miller was elected as a Democrat to the Thirty-fifth Congress (March 4, 1857 – March 3, 1859).
He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1858 to the Thirty-sixth Congress. He was appointed United States judge for Nebraska Territory March 5, 1859.
He died in Cincinnati, Ohio, on May 27, 1862. He was interred in Grandview Cemetery, Chillicothe, Ross County, Ohio, United States of America.
He served as member of the State house of representatives in 1856.