Bachelor, Park College, 1949. Master of Science, University Wisconsin, 1950. Doctor of Philosophy, University Missouri, 1966.
Assistant professor history Southeast Missouri State University, Cape Girardeau, 1956-1958, professor history, 1958-1968. Associate professor history Grand Valley State University, Allendale, Michigan, 1968-1970, professor history, since 1971.
Member Grand Haven (Michigan) Zoning Board of Appeals, 1972-1978. With United States Army, 1944-1946. Fellow Royal Society of the Arts.
Member American History Association, Grand Haven History Society, West Shore Jazz Society, Vintage Jazz Club, Order of Guy Fawkes (knight Commander), A-1 Carpool (senior tutor).
Married Evelyn Grace Shafer, 1949 (divorced 1963). 1 child, Roy; married Patricia Anne Hope, August 15, 1964. Children: Jennifer, Nathaniel.